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The surface structure of a laser-processed Al–Mo alloy has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractory (XRD). The alloy was prepared by first laser alloying a mixture of Al and Mo powders into an Al substrate and then laser remelting the alloyed surface. Following the first laser alloying process, the needle-like equilibrium phases (Al5Mo(h) and Al5Mo(r)) are formed with a broad size ranges and distribute inhomogeneously in the α-Al solid solution matrix. This coarse structure is replaced by a finer, uniform dispersion of dendrites after the subsequent laser remelting. Four basic types of solid states precipitates are observed: (1) irregularly shaped particles constructing the dendrites and having a nearly Al5Mo stoichiometry; (2) needle-like particles which is the Al5Mo (r) phase; (3) Faceted particles having a cubic structure with a stoichiometry close to Al7Mo; (4) tiny, equi-axed particles, with a rather narrow particle size distribution and a cubic structure.