Sintering of tin-doped indium oxide (Indium-Tin-Oxide, ITO) with Bi2O3 additive


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Abstract

Tin-doped indium oxide (Indium-Tin-Oxide, ITO) is known as a poorly sinterable material. Densification of ITO powders with relatively large particle size (1–2 μm) was enhanced remarkably by the additive (Bi2O3) whose melting point is lower than the sintering temperature. The maximum bulk density of 6.75 g/cm3 (relative density; 95%) was obtained when pressurelessly sintered in air at 1500°C for 5 hours using the starting material containing 2.0 mass % Bi2O3, while the density was approximately equal to the green density when sintered using the starting material without Bi2O3. Increase of electrical resistivity caused by the additive was suppressed successfully when a small amount of Bi2O3 (1.0 mass %) was added and heated at 1500°C. The bismuth was eliminated from the sintered body to achieve the low resistivity (8.1 × 10−4 ohm · cm) which was approximately equal to that of the pure ITO.

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