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Gradient distribution alumina short fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy have been fabricated by taking advantage of preform compressive deformation during squeeze casting. Pressure was applied mechanically by a punch. Velocity of the punch, pre-heat temperature of the preforms and pouring temperature were controlled during the infiltration of molten 6061 alloy into alumina short fibre preforms. The distribution of hardness along the infiltration direction in the composites was measured and the distribution of volume fraction along the infiltration direction was calculated by the hardness. Velocity of the inflow, pre-heat temperature of the preform, pouring temperature of the molten metal, binder content of the preform and volume fraction of fibres, all have a very great effect on the gradient distribution of alumina short fibres in the aluminium alloy composites.