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The solid particle erosion behaviour of polymers and polymeric composites has been reviewed. Attention was paid to the effects of testing variables (e.g., erodent type, size and flux, impact angle) and target material characteristics (e.g., crystallinity, crosslink density, reinforcement content and arrangement). The occurring failure mechanisms were classified and discussed. Various predictions and models proposed to describe the erosion rate (ER) were listed and their suitability was checked. Recommendations were given how to solve some open questions related to the structure—erosion resistance relationships for polymers and polymeric composites.