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X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical measurement were used to investigate the morphological behaviors of poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDC)-based carbons in the heat treatment temperature range 700 to 3000°C. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering results proposed that PVDC-based carbons heat treated up to 3000°C behaved as typically non-graphitizable carbons. The structural parameters were correlated with discharge/charge characteristics of Li ions into PVDC-based carbons. It was realized that the Li ion storage capacity of PVDC-based carbons during the first cycle tended to decrease with increasing the heat-treatment temperature due to the reduction of hydrogen content and the reduction of the specific surface area from pores.