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This paper reviews recent research upon the application of Raman microscopy to the characterisation of silicon carbide monofilaments produced by CVD (chemical vapour deposition). It is demonstrated that Raman microscopy is an invaluable technique allowing qualitative information about stoichoimetry variation in silicon carbide monofilaments to be obtained, as it readily detects both crystalline and amorphous carbon and silicon. It is shown that it is possible to characterise the morphology of the SiC crystallites in the monofilaments from analysis of the Raman line shapes. It is also demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used to follow deformation of SiC monofilaments and to determine residual stresses in SiC-monofilament-reinforced metal-matrix composites. In addition, it is shown that it is possible to evaluate internal stresses in the carbon coatings of SiC monofilaments.