Refractories: Controlled microstructure composites for extreme environments

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Techniques for the examination of refractories microstructures are described with particular emphasis on the need to use a range of techniques from TEM, FEGSEM, SEM to optical microscopy and macroscale to cover all magnification scales. The grain and bond and composite nature of most powder processed refractories is emphasised and illustrated with examples of microstructural evolution on firing and in service and corrosion when in contact with silicate slags. In particular the use of cathodoluminescence in conjunction with reflected light microscopy for rapid and broad scale phase recognition is highlighted.

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