Influence of wettability on bubble formation in liquid

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This paper presents experimental results of the surface phenomena effect on bubble formation from a single orifice in water and at nozzle in liquid aluminium with gas blowing at small flow rates. The usage of coated orifice in water and nozzles of different materials in the melt realized wide range of contact angles. The meaningful stages, termed (1) nucleation period, (2) under critical growth, (3) critical growth and (4) necking, were identified during bubble formation in a regime referring to simultaneous forced flow and surface tension control. It was revealed that bubble formation is substantially dominated by hysteresis of contact angle. Evolution of interface equilibrium and force balance conditions distinctive for bubble formation is clarified. X-ray fluoroscope was used to carry out in-situ observation of bubble formation in the melt. It was shown that bubble volume increased with wettability worsening both for aqueous and metallic systems. A further insight into the mechanism of the bubble formation was obtained by comparison of the bubble behaviour at the tip of the injection devices in liquid aluminium and at the orifice in water.

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