Upscaling of Hooke's Law for Imperfectly Layered Rocks1

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In this paper, we consider the upscaling of Hooke's law and its parameters on the fine scale, to a similar law with upscaled parameters on a larger scale. It is assumed that the fine scale material properties of the rock are imperfectly layered. In the governing equations, the deviations from perfect layering introduce a small parameter that can be used in perturbation series expansions for the stress, the strain, and the displacement. In the approximation of order zero the upscaled compliance matrix contains the well-known Backus parameters; this approximation holds exactly for a perfect layering. However, many natural rock types are imperfectly layered and in that case the approximation of order zero may not be sufficiently accurate. Therefore, we consider also the first order corrections. The derivation and results are presented both for the most general case and for the much simpler case in which the fine scale Poisson ratio may be assumed constant. From thermodynamic principles, it follows that the compliance tensor is symmetric on the fine scale. However, it is shown that the argument for symmetry cannot be extended to upscaled rigidities. One of the most important conclusions is that upscaled compliance tensors are nonsymmetric when there are trends in the deviations from perfect layering.

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