STOKES COCYCLE AND DIFFERENTIAL GALOIS GROUPS


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Abstract

The classification of germs of ordinary linear differential systems with meromorphic coefficients at 0 under convergent gauge transformations and fixed normal form is essentially given by the non-Abelian 1-cohomology set of Malgrange–Sibuya. (Germs themselves are actually classified by a quotient of this set.) It is known that there exists a natural isomorphism h between a unipotent Lie group (called the Stokes group) and the 1-cohomology set of Malgrange–Sibuya; the inverse map which consists of choosing, in each cohomology class, a special cocycle called a Stokes cocycle is proved to be natural and constructive. We survey here the definition of the Stokes cocycle and give a combinatorial proof for the bijectivity of h. We state some consequences of this result, such as Ramis, density theorem in linear differential Galois theory; we note that such a proof based on the Stokes cocycle theorem and the Tannakian theory does not require any theory of (multi-)summation.

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