The effects of an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration on proteoglycan (PG) synthesis by peritubular (PT) cells from immature rat testis were investigated. In the presence of dBcAMP for 72 h, the [3H]-hexosamine incorporation in secreted PG and in cellassociated PG was reduced, whereas [35S]-sulfate radioactivity was enhanced in secreted PG and not affected in cell-associated PG. Cholera toxin and IBMX, known to generate high intracellular cAMP levels, induced similar changes. Cyclic AMP did not alter PG protein moiety synthesis but enhanced PG turnover. Cholera toxin and dBcAMP profoundly modified PG characteristics: (1) Apparent molecular weight of PG was increased. (2) This was due to an increase in glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS)) length. (3) The number of glycosaminoglycan chains was presumably reduced. (4) Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains of medium and cell layer-associated PG appeared oversulfated. (5) The pattern of cell layer associated PG was modified with a decrease in HSPG and a correlative increase in CSPG. Cholera toxin and dBcAMP also dramatically stimulated hyaluronan synthesis by possible phosphorylation induced activation of hyaluronan synthase(s).