Alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in pregnancy with preeclampsia

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The present study was intended to appraise the oxidant and antioxidant status in preeclampsia women. Seventy-seven preeclampsia women with severe variety having average B.P. of 170/140 mmHg with proteinuria; 47 preeclampsia women with mild variety having average B.P. of 138/100 mmHg were compared to 56 healthy pregnant women and 15 non-pregnant women for oxidant and antioxidant status. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant status was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzymes N.B.; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and vitamins viz; A, E, C and reduced glutathione (GSH). Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in severe preeclampsia women. Antioxidant status was also compromised as is evident from decreased GSH levels and increased SOD activities not only in severe preeclampsia but also in normal pregnancy and mild preeclampsia women compared to non-pregnant women. Decreased antioxidant enzyme activity viz catalase and glutathione peroxidase was observed in pregnancy as compared to non-pregnant women. The levels of vitamin E which act as an antioxidant were significantly elevated in preeclampsia compared to that of normal pregnancy. These findings conclude that initially the oxidative stress due to pregnancy-induced hypertension is critically combated by the intricate defensive mechanism of natural antioxidant system of the body. It appears that this imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant is the effect of disease and not the causative factor.

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