Image Enhancement by Noncontrast Harmonic Echocardiography. Part II. Quantitative Assessment With Use of Contrast-to-Speckle Ratio

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To ascertain whether "harmonic imaging"-use of ultrasound signals with the frequency twice that of the transmitted signal for ultrasound image generation-can improve image contrast while reducing noise.


Technically difficult echocardiograms (nonvisualization of 2 or more endocardial segments in a 16-segment model) from 25 patients were analyzed. Corresponding fundamental and harmonic images of the left ventricle in the apical four-chamber, two-chamber, and long-axis views were divided into basal, mid, and apical regions. The difference in image quality between fundamental and harmonic scans was assessed by using the muscle-to-cavity contrast-to-speckle ratio (CSRmc).


The mean CSRmc values of pooled data revealed significant image enhancement by harmonic scanning (CSRmc increased from 0.84 to 1.06; P<0.0001). Regression analysis showed that harmonic imaging improved the CSRmc values in 68% of all scans. Regional analysis indicated the most enhancement in basal regions (CSRmc increased from 0.96 to 1.34; P<0.0001), followed by the mid (CSRmc increased from 0.84 to 1.04; P<0.0001) and apical (CSRmc increased from 0.68 to 0.74; P = 0.0138) left ventricular regions.


Noncontrast harmonic imaging significantly enhances suboptimal echocardiographic images, particularly in the regions distant from the transducer.

Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73


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