Outcomes of a System-Wide Protocol for Elective and Nonelective Coronary Angioplasty at Sites Without On-site Surgery: The Mayo Clinic Experience

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To compare outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) at 2 community hospitals without on-site surgery (Franciscan Skemp Healthcare and Immanuel St. Joseph's Hospital) with a center with on-site surgery (Saint Marys Hospital).


Using a matched case-control design, we studied 1842 elective and 667 nonelective PCI procedures (myocardial infarction [MI]/cardiogenic shock) performed from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2007. The quality assurance protocol included operator volume and training, application of a risk-adjustment model, transport protocol, and database participation. We compared in-hospital mortality and/or emergent coronary artery bypass surgery after PCI at Franciscan Skemp Healthcare and Immanuel St. Joseph's Hospital, which do not have on-site surgery, with Saint Marys Hospital, a medical center with the capability to perform coronary artery bypass grafting on site.


Of 22 baseline variables, significant imbalances between matched groups were present in only 3 (hyperlipidemia, history of Ml, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association B2/C type lesion) in the elective group and 2 (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III/IV angina, multivessel disease) in the nonelective group. The primary end point occurred in 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.6% of patients undergoing elective PCI (P=.07) and 3.3%, 3.3%, and 3.7% of patients undergoing nonelective PCI (P=.65) at Immanuel St. Joseph's Hospital, Franciscan Skemp Healthcare, and Saint Marys Hospital, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate at Immanuel St. Joseph's Hospital and Franciscan Skemp Healthcare was comparable to that at Saint Marys Hospital for both elective (0.3%, 0.1%, 0.4%;P=.24) and nonelective PCI (2.6%, 2.4%, 3.1%;P=.49). No patient undergoing elective PCI required transfer for emergency cardiac surgery. Of the 21 transfers, 20 (95%) were in the setting of Ml and cardiogenic shock or left main/3-vessel disease; 18 patients (86%) survived to discharge.


Optimal outcomes with PCI have been observed at community hospitals without on-site cardiac surgical programs with application of a prospective, standardized quality assurance protocol.


Mayo Clin Proc.2009;84(6):501-508

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