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To discover whether patients with aortic root dilation and leptosomic features but without a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) fare similarly to patients with MFS.Of 124 patients with aortic root dilation identified from August 1, 1994, through October 31, 2012, 66 had MFS and 58 had leptosomic features but did not meet the Ghent criteria. Genetic testing was performed in 35% of patients (n=43). We compared z scores and aortic root diameters for patients who presented with aortic root dilation with and without an MFS diagnosis and with and without aortic root repair.No difference existed in initial aortic root diameters between groups (P=.15); however, mean ± SD z scores for patients without MFS and with MFS were 3.1±2.3 vs 4.5±3.2 (P=.005). Fourteen of 58 patients (24%) without MFS and 35 (53%) with MFS underwent aortic root operations (P<.05). For both groups who did not have surgery, aortic root diameters and z scores remained similar at follow-up (P=.20), as did 10-year survival: MFS, 100%; no MFS, 94.1% (P=.98). No significant difference was found for mean ± SD root diameter (no MFS, 38.9±7.3 mm; MFS, 35±8.6 mm; P=.06) or z score (no MFS, 2.4±2.0; MFS, 2.1±2.0; P=.53) for patients who underwent surgery. Two patients in each group had aortic root dissections.Similar rates of aortic dissection between the 2 groups warrant further study regarding patients with leptosomic features but no diagnosis of MFS. Aortic root dilation progressed similarly in patients who did not undergo surgery.