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To determine the mortality of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and temporal trends in mortality.All 895 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, first diagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (411 with CD and 484 with UC) from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2010, were followed through June 30, 2016. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed—expected rates were derived from the US 2010 background population. To determine overall and cause-specific mortality, each patient with IBD was matched with 5 county residents, and Cox regression analysis was used to assess time to death.A total of 895 patients with IBD and 4475 patients without IBD were included. Seventy-four patients with CD died compared with 59.2 expected (SMR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.98-1.57), and 77 patients with UC died compared with 108.1 expected (SMR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89). In CD, the risk of dying was significantly associated with diagnosis from 1970 through 1979 (SMR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.24-2.78). Of those diagnosed after 1980, the risk of dying in patients with CD was similar to the US background population. In UC, the risk of dying was less than expected in all periods of diagnosis. In the Cox regression analysis, overall mortality was not significantly higher in CD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 0.97-1.63) or UC (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.14) compared with the comparison cohort. The risk of dying of digestive diseases (HR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.24-11.0) and respiratory diseases (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.36-5.44) was increased in CD but not UC.In this cohort, overall mortality in patients with CD diagnosed after 1980 did not differ from that in the US background population. Overall mortality in patients with UC diagnosed from 1970 through 2010 was lower than the expected mortality.