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Limited data exist on differences in time spent on household activities and child care between male and female physicians, which may influence sex differences in hours worked professionally. We studied sex differences among married physicians in time spent on household activities (eg, cleaning and cooking) and child care (eg, bathing and homework) from 2003 through 2016 using the American Time Use Survey, a detailed time use survey administered by the US Census. Overall, we found that female physicians with children spent 100.2 minutes (95% CI, 67.0-133.3 minutes) more per day on household activities and child care than did male physicians, a finding that was qualitatively similar after adjustment for work hours outside the home of both spouses. These patterns may reflect societal norms that ultimately influence physician sex differences in hours worked professionally.