In this study we compared plasma and erythrocyte thiamine levels in a group of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (iPD) to a group of patients with probable Alzheimer's Disease (pAD). pAD patients had significantly lower plasma thiamine levels (raw and z-score) than iPD patients. A significantly higher number of pAD patients had plasma thiamine deficiencies than iPD patients. The demographics of our patient groups were similar to those reported by other investigators, making age, sex and nutritional status unlikely explanations for our findings. These results suggest that plasma thiamine deficiency is associated with pAD but not with iPD.