Constitutive relations are derived for the nonlinear response of rubbery polymers and polymeric melts at isothermal loading. The model is based on a concept of nonaffine temporary networks, where breakage and reformation of active chains are responsible for the viscoelastic behavior, whereas gliding of junctions with respect to a bulk medium reflects the plastic effects. Constitutive equations are developed using the laws of thermodynamics. They contain only one extra adjustable parameter compared to the Lodge formula in finite viscoelasticity. The model is applied to study stresses and residual strains in a bar at uniaxial extension and in a layer at simple shear. Fair agreement is demonstrated between experimental data for polystyrene and polyethylene at elevated temperature and the results of numerical simulation.