BOND OF FRP REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE — A CHALLENGE


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Abstract

The bond of ordinary steel reinforcement in concrete depends on many factors, such as the pullout resistance, the geometry of a concrete member, the placement of a bar in the member cross section, the cover splitting, the confinement caused by concrete and the surrounding reinforcement, the order of bond-crack appearance, and the bond-stress distribution along the bond length. The bond of FRP reinforcement depends on even a greater number of factors. Moreover, the types of FRP bars are numerous. Their surface is weaker than that of steel bars and may fracture by bond forces. The surface of FRP bars is softer and does not create as high local stress concentrations in bond contact points to concrete as the harder steel bars do. This fact often delays the appearance of cover splitting cracks along the bars. However, the load necessary for developing the crack pattern of ultimate splitting failure in concrete is then very dependent on whether the bar surface is glossy or rough. The FRP reinforcement can also be used for external shear and/or flexural strengthening of existing members. For this application, FRP bars are placed in grooves cut on the surface of the member to be strengthened and are fixed there with a cement mortar or epoxy paste. In such an application, the performance of bond between the FRP rod and the mortar or resin and then between the mortar or resin and concrete is critical for the effectiveness of the technique. The presence of two interfaces increases the number of parameters needed to characterize the global “joint” behavior and introduces new possible failure modes. The fundament for the bond resistance estimation should be an accepted bond philosophy linked to appropriate models. A system of bond tests should provide necessary coefficients for the models.

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