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A theoretical and experimental study on the buckling of pultruded columns under an axial load is reported. The tests were carried out on wide-flange (H-shape) and narrow-flange (I-shape) pultruded structural profiles reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP). The aim of the research was to provide more detailed information on the effective buckling behavior, the interaction between local and global buckling, and the type of failure, considering different slenderness ratios, λ from 9 to 195. Also, a comparison between the results of a finite-element analysis and experimental data is shown.