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Esophageal duplication cysts (EDCs) are rare developmental anomalies. They may occur anywhere along the esophagus with the predominant location in the thoracic segment. Presently, most are diagnosed prenatally or in early childhood. The prevalence of EDCs is estimated at 1 in 8200 live births. Usually, cysts are asymptomatic in the neonatal period, but they may cause respiratory distress or feeding difficulties depending on the size and location of the lesion.This report presents a female neonate with a cyst located in the right pleural cavity recognized prenatally. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis and revealed a round cystic mass in proximity to the left lung base. Thoracoscopic cyst excision was undertaken on day 15 after delivery. The postoperative period was uneventful. Histological cyst examination confirmed the diagnosis of foregut duplication.This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of EDC, before symptoms and complications arise, and confirms that surgery in the neonatal period is safe and effective.