Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is suggested as a novel factor associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated plasma PCSK9 with cardiovascular risk till now. Hence, we aimed to prospectively investigate the association between baseline PCSK9 and cardiovascular risk graded with number of risk factors (RFs), coronary severity, and outcomes in patients with stable CAD.
Baseline characteristics and biomarkers were measured in 616 consecutive, nontreated patients with stable CAD. Coronary severity was measured using SYNTAX, Gensini, and Jeopardy scoring systems. Patients were then received treatment and followed for a median of 17 months. The primary endpoints were cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), post-discharge revascularization, or unstable angina (UA).
Overall, follow-up data were obtained from 603 patients. A total of 72 (11.9%) patients presented with at least 1 major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) (4 cardiac deaths, 4 strokes, 6 MIs, 28 revascularizations, and 30 UAs). At baseline, PCSK9 was increased with an increasing number of RFs and positively associated with coronary severity scores (P < 0.05, all). After follow-up, those with MACE had a higher baseline PCSK9, hs-CRP, and coronary scores than those without (P < 0.05, all). Multivariate analysis showed that PCSK9, hs-CRP, and coronary scores were independently predictive for MACEs (P < 0.05, all). Interestingly, more significant predictive values of PCSK9 in medical-alone-treated population but no such associations in revascularization-treated patients were found.
Together, plasma PCSK9, as well as hs-CRP and coronary scores, could independently predict MACEs in patients with stable CAD.