Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranked the fifth in male and ninth in the female counterparts, and 50% of incidence HCC cases were occurred in China with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence. HCC has seriously compromised the health status of general population in China. A case–control study of 314 HCC cases and 346 controls was conducted in Xiamen, which is an epidemic area in China for both hepatitis B infection and HCC. Face-to-face interview was conducted to gather information on demographic characteristics as well as exposure of environmental factors. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the status of serological markers of HBV infection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the potential interactions of variables or confounders.
As expected, HBV and alcohol intake still are the major risk factors of HCC. Liver disease history and passive smoking are also associated with elevated HCC risk. Indoor air pollution and pesticide exposure have newly identified as risk factors of HCC. Fruit and tea intake can significantly lower the HCC risk.
The application of HBV vaccine and reduction on alcohol intake should be further promoted in high-risk population. Fruit and tea can be served as chemoprevention in daily life due to their high accessibility.