Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients

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The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT.

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.

In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database.

The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity.

The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824–0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively.

Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were independent risk factors of poor outcome for elderly aSAH patients underwent EVT. In combination with these risk factors, the Changhai score can be a useful tool in the prediction of clinical outcome but needs to be validated in various centers before it can be recommended for application.

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