A Fatal Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome in a Patient With Chronic kidney Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review

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Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is a rare but fatal disease, which occurs commonly in immunocompromised patients. Strongyloidiasis among patients with chronic kidney disease is rarely reported.

A 55-year-old Chinese male presented to hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. He developed acute respiratory failure and progressed to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage owing to disseminated strongyloidiasis immediately. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

This patient was diagnosed with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. Although albendazole, mechanical ventilator support, fluid resuscitation, vasopressor support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, hydrocortisone, and broadspectrum antimicrobials were actively used, the patient eventually died.

Similar cases in patients with chronic kidney disease in the literature are also reviewed. Through literature review, we recommend that strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy.

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