Primary Renal Rhabdomyosarcoma in an Adolescent With Tumor Thrombosis in the Inferior Vena Cava and Right Atrium: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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Although the second peak of the age distribution of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is at adolescence, renal RMS is extremely rare at this age group. This tumor is indistinguishable from other renal tumors based on clinical and imaging findings, and the diagnosis relies on histology and immunohistochemical staining. We report a unique case of adolescent renal RMS associated with tumor thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium.

An 18-year-old female adolescent presented with shortness of breath and palpitations, associated with right flank discomfort, and hematuria. A pleomorphic-type renal RMS with Budd–Chiari syndrome and arrhythmia induced by IVC and RA thrombosis was diagnosed. Despite complete tumor resection, the patient developed multiple lung metastases a month after surgery. Chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient declined. She died within a year of the initial operation.

Adolescent renal RMS is rare and associated with poor outcome. Early aggressive multimodal therapy seems to be appropriate, in particular, in the presence of tumor thrombosis.

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