Case report and literature review: Glomerular and neurologic thrombotic microangiopathy as a primary manifestation of multicentric castleman disease

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Introduction:We report the case of a multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with initial renal involvement. Although the renal involvement in this case was typical of MCD, it constitutes a rare presentation of the disease, and in our case the renal manifestations led to the haematological diagnosis.Clinical Findings/Patient Concerns:The patient was admitted for fever, diarrhea, anasarca, lymphadenopathies and acute renal failure. Despite intravenous rehydration using saline and albumin, renal function worsened and the patient required dialysis. While diagnostic investigations were performed, right hemiplegia occurred. There was no anemia or thrombocytopenia.Diagnoses:Kidney biopsy was consistent with glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Lymph node histology was consistent with hyalin-vascular variant of Castleman disease.Outcomes:Given the renal and neurological manifestations of this MCD-associated TMA, the patient was treated with plasma exchange during one month, and six courses of rituximab, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. The evolution was favorable.Conclusion:Although rare, this diagnosis is worth knowing, as specific treatment has to be started as soon as possible and proved to be efficient in our case as well as in other reports in the literature.

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