Fatal endocarditis with methicilin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus and major complications: rhabdomyolysis, pericarditis, and intracerebral hematomaA case report and review of the literature

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Background:Over the last decades Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has become the dominant etiology of native valve infective endocarditis, with the community-acquired methicillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA) strains being the prevailing type.Case:We report here a case of extremely severe CA-MSSA aortic valve acute endocarditis associated with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in a previously healthy man and include a literature review.The patient developed severe and rare complications (purpura, purulent pericarditis, intracerebral hematoma, and rhabdomyolysis) through systemic embolism; they required drainage of pericardial empyema and cerebral hematoma, the latter eventually caused a fatal outcome. The strains recovered from sequential blood culture sets and pericardial fluid were MSSA negative for genes encoding for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1 and Panton–Valentine leukocidin. C, G, and I enterotoxin genes were detected.Conclusions:This case with unusually severe evolution underlines the limited ability of vancomycin to control some MSSA infections, possibly due to potential involvement of SA virulence factors, hence the importance of clinical vigilance for community SAB cases.

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