Hydrocephalus secondary to chemotherapy in a case of prenatally diagnosed giant immature grade 3 sacrococcygeal teratoma: A case report and literature review


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Abstract

Introduction:Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a rare tumor in the general population, arising from multipotent stem cells. Whereas most of the cases diagnosed postnatally have good prognosis, the rate of mortality and morbidities associated with prenatally diagnosed SCT remain high, with a reported mortality rate of 30% to 50%. The outcome of fetal SCT can be unpredictable, with some cases with slow growth during fetal life, whereas others grow rapidly, causing multiple complications; also, some of these tumor will develop triggering fetal (preterm delivery, high-output cardiac failure, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine death) or maternal complications (distocia, placentomegaly, maternal mirror syndrome—preeclampsia). Even if prenatal criteria seem to define tumors at risk, it can not totally predict postnatal outcome as treatment-related complications can occur.We present a case of giant prenatally detected SCT. The case was diagnosed at 24th week of gestation, and was closely monitored by serial ultrasound. The morphology of the lesion was defined by fetal MRI performed at 25th week of gestation. A baby girl with a huge sacrococcygeal tumor was born and surgery was performed 48 hours later. Pathological examination revealed a grade 3 immature teratoma. Because of the tumor size and pathological aspect, adjuvant chemotherapy was considered. The outcome was complicated by wound infection, sepsis, and subsequent hydrocephalus, induced by chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.Conclusion:Our case emphasizes not only the importance of prenatal monitoring of these cases but also the importance of individualized postnatal management, as unusual and unpredictable complications can occur and affect outcome.

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