Risk factors for postoperative complications in total thyroidectomy: A retrospective, risk-adjusted analysis from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

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Abstract

Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing, and with it, an increase in total thyroidectomy. There are limited studies comparing outcomes in total thyroidectomy performed in the inpatient versus outpatient setting.

The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of risk factors and outcomes of postoperative morbidity and mortality in total thyroidectomy performed as an inpatient versus outpatient surgery.

Retrospective cohort study of data from the 2005 to 2014 multi-institutional, risk-adjusted American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. A multivariate regression model with corresponding odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was used to determine 30-day morbidity and mortality after total thyroidectomies, and also risk factors of postoperative outcomes.

From 2005 to 2014, 40,025 total thyroidectomies were performed (48.5% inpatient, 51.5% outpatient). The 30-day complication rate for all total thyroidectomies was 7.74%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to control for potential confounding variables. Preoperative factors that affected complications rates for inpatient thyroidectomies included: age ≥70, non-Caucasian race, dependent functional status, history of congestive heart failure, smoking history, bleeding disorder, wound infection, and preoperative sepsis (P < 0.05). In addition, preoperative factors affecting complications in thyroidectomy performed as an outpatient surgery included malignant thyroid pathology (P  0.05).

We identified a subset of preoperative conditions that affect risk of complications after total thyroidectomy. Recommendations for patient selection for outpatient total thyroidectomies should be modified to account for pre-existing conditions that increase the risk of postoperative morbidity.

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