Implantation of VVI pacemaker in a patient with dextrocardia, persistent left superior vena cava, and sick sinus syndrome: A case report

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Dextrocardia, or right-lying heart, is an uncommon congenital heart disease in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of chest. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVA) is a rare venous anomaly that is often associated with the abnormalities of cardiac transduction system. A case with combination of dextrocardia, persistent left superior vena cava, and sick sinus syndrome has not been reported.


We used different techniques including cardiac color Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and abdominal ultrasound to make a diagnosis and treated the patient by implanting a VVI pacemaker.


A 50-year-old woman was admitted with a syncope. Angiography of the right atrium and superior vena cava, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of the combination of mirror image dextrocardia, PLSVA, and sick sinus syndrome. The complex structural anomalies presented great technical challenges for interventional treatments. After thorough examination and understanding of the structural anatomy and anomalies of the superior and inferior vena cava and cardiac chambers, we successfully treated this patient by implanting a VVI pacemaker.


Physicians must be aware of the complexity of the morphological and anatomical structures of dextrocardia accompanying PLSVC. Given that the diagnosis of situs inversus was performed at a relatively advanced age, it is therefore important to make such a correct diagnosis followed by appropriate therapeutic intervention.

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