Seizure syndrome as a first manifestation of solitary tumor-like mass lesion of PACNS: Two case reports

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Abstract

Rationale:

Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an inflammatory disease involving cerebrovascular and parenchymal, and solitary tumor-like mass lesion of PACNS (TLML-PACNS) is frequently misdiagnosed as neoplastic or other inflammatory diseases. However, seizure syndrome as a first manifestation of TLML-PACNS has rarely reported before.

Patient concerns:

Here, we report 2 cases of seizure syndrome, which was the first sign that presented prior to the diagnosis of TLML-PACNS by brain biopsy.

Diagnoses:

A mass lesion in the white and gray matters was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The pathology for leptomeningeal lesion biopsy observed a transmural inflammation of the artery, with T lymphocyte infiltration. Patients were diagnosed with PACNS and epileptic seizure by biopsy and electroencephalogram.

Interventions:

Patients were treated with glucocorticoid pulse therapy for 3 days, and subsequently oral prednisone was continued, in combination with immunosuppressant.

Outcomes:

Luckily, both two patients were improved after treatment, and only mild cognitive impairment remained without adverse event.

Lessons:

Patient with mass lesion in CNS, which is similar to tumor, presented with seizure, headache, or cerebrovascular events without any other risk factors for stroke or tumor, should be considered the feasible with the disease of TLML-PACNS.

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