Prevalence of complications after surgery in treatment for cervical compressive myelopathy: A meta-analysis for last decade

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Abstract

Purpose:

We aim to perform a meta-analysis on prevalence of all kinds of operation-related complications following surgery treating cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) and to provide reference for surgeons making surgical plan.

Methods:

An extensive search of literature was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG databases on incidence of operation-related complications from January 2007 to November 2016. Data was calculated and data analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0 and Revman 5.3.

Results:

A total of 107 studies included 1705 of 8612 patients (20.1%, 95% CI 17.3%–22.8%) on overall complications. The incidence of C5 plasy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), infection, axial pain, dysphagia, hoarseness, fusion failure, graft subsidence, graft dislodgment, and epidural hematoma is 5.3% (95% CI 4.3%–6.2%), 1.9% (95% CI 1.3%–2.4%), 2.8% (95% CI 1.7%–4.0%), 15.6% (95% CI 11.7%–19.5%), 16.8% (95% CI 13.6%–19.9%), 4.0% (95% CI 2.3%–5.7%), 2.6% (95% CI 0.2%–4.9%), 3.7% (95% CI 2.0%–5.5%), 3.4% (95% CI 2.0%–4.8%), 1.1% (95% CI 0.7%–1.5%), respectively. Patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (6.3%) had a higher prevalence of C5 plasy than those with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (4.1%), and a similar trend in CSF (12.2% vs 0.9%). Individuals after laminectomy and fusion (LF) had highest rate of C5 plasy (15.2%), while those who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) had the lowest prevalence (2.0%). Compared with patients after other surgical options, individuals after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) have the highest rate of CSF (4.2%), infection (14.2%), and epidural hematoma (3.1%). Patients after ACDF (4.8%) had a higher prevalence of hoarseness than those with ACCF (3.0%), and a similar trend for dysphagia between anterior corpectomy combined with discectomy (ACCDF) and ACCF (16.8% vs 9.9%).

Conclusions:

Based on our meta-analysis, patients with OPLL have a higher incidence of C5 palsy and CSF. Patients after LF have a higher incidence of C5 palsy, ACCDF have a higher incidence of dysphagia, ACCF have a higher incidence of CSF and infection and ACDF have a higher incidence of hoarseness. These figures may be useful in the estimation of the probability of complications following cervical surgery.

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