The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied. In addition, risk factors for septic shock and death were investigated. Among the 553 positive blood isolates during the study period, the prevalence of E coli was 33.3% and ESBL production strains represented 61.9% of those examined. In all the E coli strains isolated, 85.6% were multidrug-resistance (MDR), 2.4% were extensive drug resistance (XDR), and 6.0% were resistant to carbapenems. More MDR phenotype was noted in ESBL-EC strains (98.6% vs 62.8%, P<.001) and isolates from neutropenic patients (98.6% vs 62.8%, P < .001). In the antimicrobial susceptibility test, carbapenems and amikacin exhibited not only higher in vitro activity against E coli (94.0% and 92.0%, respectively), but lower co-resistance rates to other antibiotics. Carbapenem resistant strains retained full sensitivity to tigecycline and 60% to amikacin. Piperacillin/tazobatam was the third sensitive drug to both ESBL-EC (77.1%) and non-ESBL-EC (86.0%). In our series, 81.6% episodes received appropriate initial antibiotic treatment and no significant decrease in it was found in bacteremia due to ESBL E coli and patients with neutropenia, septic shock. Septic shock was noted in 15.5% patients and the overall 30-day mortality rate was 21.7%. Multivariate analysis revealed that induction chemotherapy (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.624–11.332; P = .003) and polymicrobial infection (OR 3.628; 95% CI 1.065–21.219; P = .041) were risk factors for septic shock, whereas male (OR 2.223; 95% CI 1.132–12.022; P < .01) and septic shock (OR 52.359; 95% CI 19.951–292.690; P = .030) were risk factors for death.
In the hematology department, ESBL-producing and MDR are widely prevalent in E coli bacteremia which is still a major life-threatening problem, especially for patients with septic shock. For empirical antimicrobial therapy, combination based on aminoglycoside, especially amikacin, will be helpful to increase the antimicrobial coverage against ESBL-EC while combining tigecycline with aminoglycoside should be considered for seriously carbapenem-resistant infectious patients.