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The motive of this study was to investigate the collaboration between MDR1 gene polymorphisms and anesthetic effects following pediatric tonsillectomy.All together 178 children undergoing tonsillectomy with preoperative sevoflurane–remifentanil anesthesia were selected. In order to determine MDR1 gene polymorphisms of 3435C > T, 1236C > T, and 2677G > T/A, polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism was used. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) at T0 (5 mins after the repose), T1 (0 min after tracheal intubation), T2 (5 mins after the tracheal intubation), T3 (0 min after the tonsillectomy), T4 (0 min after removal of the mouth-gag) and T5 (5 min after the extubation) were observed. The visual analog scale (VAS), the face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability (FLACC) pain assessment, and Ramsay sedation score were recorded after the patients gained consciousness. The adverse reactions were also observed.As compared to the CT + TT genotype of MDR1 1236C > T, the time of induction, respiration recovery, eye-opening, and extubation of children with the CC genotype was found to be shorter (all P <.05); the MAP, SBP, DBP, and HR were significantly reduced at T5 in children that possessed the CC genotype (all P <.05), the VAS at postoperative 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours and Ramsay sedation score were decreased, while the FLACC score increased (all P <.05). It was found that the adverse reaction rate was lower in children bearing the CC genotype (P <.05).It could be concluded that anesthetic effect in patients with the MDR1 1236C > T CC genotype was found to be superior to those carrying the CT + TT genotype.