Different types of glomerulonephritis associated with the dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway in 2 brothers: A case report

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Rationale:C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) both result from the abnormal regulation of the complement system. A significant number of patients with C3GN or complement-mediated HUS have mutations of more than 1 complement protein. This discovery has had a major impact on identifying the underlying cause of familial C3GN or complement-mediated HUS.Patient concerns:We report the cases of 2 brothers (herein referred to as patient II-1 and patient II-9), both with complement disorders that differed in their clinical and genetic features.Diagnoses:Patient II-1 clinically presented with nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury and pathologically presented with C3GN combined with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Meanwhile, patient II-9 clinically presented with HUS and pathologically presented with TMA combined with acute severe tubular injury.Interventions:Screenings for genetic mutations contributed to complement system dysregulation were performed on patient II-1.Outcomes:The genome sequencing identified that patient II-1 had a heterozygous mutation in the C3 gene (c.C1774T/p.R592W). Nine other relatives of the brothers were checked for this C3 mutation and only the daughter of patient II-1 (herein referred to as patient III-2) carried it, but so far, she does not have any clinical manifestations of kidney disease.Lessions:Family members with a dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway may differ in its clinical and genetic features.

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