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The aim of this study was to elucidate the predictive risk factors of synchronous multiple early gastric cancer regardless of the treatment modality.Patients who underwent early gastric cancer treatment between July 2005 and June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 1529 patients who were treated for early gastric cancer were included. We analyzed the patient's data to find predictive factors of synchronous multiple early gastric cancer compared to solitary early gastric cancer. Further analysis was performed to verify the difference between endoscopic and surgical treatment groups.Among the 1529 patients, synchronous multiple early gastric cancer was diagnosed in 68 (4.4%) patients. Significant differences in sex (P = .004), gross appearance (P = .038), depth of invasion (P = .007), and lymphovascular invasion (P = .039) were found between patients with solitary early gastric cancer and synchronous multiple early gastric cancer by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio, 2.475; P = .011) and submucosal invasion (odds ratio, 1.850; P = .033) were independent predictive risk factors of synchronous multiple early gastric cancer. In addition, in multivariate analysis, significant differences in age, tumor size, longitudinal location, depth of invasion, and histology were found between patients groups depending on the mode of treatment.Male sex and submucosal invasion were predictive risk factors of synchronous multiple early gastric cancer. Patients with these factors should undergo more meticulous endoscopic surveillance.