Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). In this study, we investigated perioperative factors, including oxygen content, related to the postoperative development of AKI after LDLT. The perioperative data of 334 patients were reviewed retrospectively. We identified the postoperative development of AKI based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Perioperative variables, including oxygen content, were compared between patients with and without AKI. Potentially significant variables in a univariate analysis were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Postoperative AKI developed in 76 patients (22.7%). Univariate analysis revealed that preoperative factors (body mass index [BMI], diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein) and intraoperative factors (severe postreperfusion syndrome, packed red blood cell transfusion, furosemide, and oxygen content at the anhepatic phase, 5 minutes and 1 hour after graft reperfusion, and at peritoneal closure) of recipients were significant. The multivariate analysis showed that oxygen content 5 minutes after graft reperfusion, BMI, and furosemide administration were independently associated with postoperative AKI. In conclusion, postoperative AKI was independently associated with oxygen content 5 minutes after graft reperfusion, BMI, and furosemide administration. Meticulous ventilator care and transfusion should be required to maintain sufficient oxygen content immediately after graft reperfusion in patients who undergo LDLT.