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The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the concentration of C-telopeptide fragments of type II collagen (CTX-II), Zn2+, and Ca2+ in urine and knee osteoarthritis (KOA).Eighty-two patients with KOA and 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Anteroposterior and lateral position x-rays of knee joints were collected. The images were classified according to Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading criterion. The patients were divided into group grade I, group grade II, group grade III, and grade IV. The concentration of CTX-II in the urine was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of Zn2+ and Ca2+ in urine was detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.Compared with the healthy individuals, the concentration of CTX-II was significantly higher in KOA patients. The concentration of CTX-II in KOA patients from high to low was as follows: group IV, group III, group II, and group I. There was no significant difference between group I and healthy individuals. The concentration of Zn2+ and Ca2+ in urine of KOA patients was higher than that in healthy individuals. There was no difference in each KOA group.The concentration of CTX-II is instrumental to diagnose the progress of KOA. The concentration of Zn2+ and Ca2+ in urine is helpful for early diagnosis of KOA.