With a little help from a computer: discriminating between bacterial and viral meningitis based on dominance-based rough set approach analysis

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Differential Diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis remains an important clinical problem. A number of methods to assist in the diagnoses of meningitis have been developed, but none of them have been found to have high specificity with 100% sensitivity.We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 148 children hospitalized in St. Joseph Children's Hospital in Poznań. In this study, we applied for the first time the original methodology of dominance-based rough set approach (DRSA) to diagnostic patterns of meningitis data and represented them by decision rules useful in discriminating between bacterial and viral meningitis. The induction algorithm is called VC-DomLEM; it has been implemented as software package called jMAF (http://www.cs.put.poznan.pl/jblaszczynski/Site/jRS.html), based on java Rough Set (jRS) library.In the studied group, there were 148 patients (78 boys and 70 girls), and the mean age was 85 months. We analyzed 14 attributes, of which only 4 were used to generate the 6 rules, with C-reactive protein (CRP) being the most valuable.Factors associated with bacterial meningitis were: CRP level ≥86 mg/L, number of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ≥4481 μL−1, symptoms duration no longer than 2 days, or age less than 1 month. Factors associated with viral meningitis were CRP level not higher than 19 mg/L, or CRP level not higher than 84 mg/L in a patient older than 11 months with no more than 1100 μL−1 leukocytes in CSF.We established the minimum set of attributes significant for classification of patients with meningitis. This is new set of rules, which, although intuitively anticipated by some clinicians, has not been formally demonstrated until now.

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