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This study aims to investigate the relationships of personality and social support with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traffic accidents.The 90 Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were completed 1 week after trauma. The Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was surveyed 3 months after discharge.PCL-C score of 38 was used as cutoff point. The older age and lower education significantly increased the PTSD incidence. SCL-90 score was positively correlated with PTSD symptom score. The psychoticism (P) (0.230) and neuroticism (N) (0.302) was positively correlated with PTSD symptom score in a linear relationship. Objective support, subjective support, exploitation degree, and social support were negatively associated with PTSD scores. Force symptoms, psychoticism, subjective support, introversion, and extroversion could explain 65.0% of degree of variation for PTSD with the estimated standard error of 4.758.PTSD associated social factors include force symptoms, psychoticism, subjective support, introversion, and extroversion.