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The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and combined of intravenous and inhaled anesthesia (CIIA) on intraoperative awareness in surgical patients.A total of 678 patients were recruited in the CIIA group, while TIVA group included 566 patients. The clinical characteristics and the occurrence of intraoperative awareness were compared between the groups. Mini-Mental State Examination, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 tests were performed to estimate cognitive and psychological functions of the patients. In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the risk factors for intraoperative awareness in surgical patients.In CIIA group, 3 patients (0.44%) were confirmed with intraoperative awareness, while 11 patients (1.94%) in TIVA group underwent intraoperative awareness. The occurrence rate of intraoperative awareness was significantly higher in VITA group than that in the CIIA group (P = .029). Awareness classification demonstrated that intraoperative awareness mainly included auditory, tactile, and pain perceptions. Moreover, 4 patients showed distress after operation. Patients with intraoperative awareness exhibited poor performance in cognitive and psychological tests (P < .001 for all). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CIIA (odds ratio [OR] = 0.198, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.047–0.827), age (OR = 0.951, 95% CI = 0.908–0.997), midazolam application (OR = 0.158, 95% CI = 0.034–0.736), awareness history (OR = 10.131, 95% CI = 2.206–45.517), and duration of surgery (OR = 1.016, 95% CI = 1.001–1.032) were significantly associated with intraoperative awareness.Intraoperative awareness can significantly influence the cognitive and psychological functions of surgical patients. CIIA and midazolam application may lower the risk of intraoperative awareness.