Characteristics of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases: Comparison between Aspergillus fumigatus and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species

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While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.There were 430 proven/probable IPA and 76 culture-positive proven/probable IPA. Excluding cases of multiple species of fungi or cases having difficulties in species-level identification, 41 A fumigatus and 22 non-fumigatus IPA (Aspergillus flavus [n = 11], Aspergillus niger [n = 6], and Aspergillus terreus [n = 5]) were compared. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. However, disseminated IA was more common in non-fumigatus IPA (2.4% vs 18.2%; P = .046). Paranasal sinus (PNS) involvement was more common in non-fumigatus IPA. There was a trend towards higher peak serum galactomannan values in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA group (median 1.33 [interquartile 0.98–3.29] vs 0.97 [0.66–1.97]; P = .084). Clinical response and mortality did not differ between groups.The culture-positive rate of proven/probable IPA was 17.7%, of which non-fumigatus Aspergillus accounted for about one-third. Disseminated IA, especially involving the PNS, was more frequent in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA.

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