Gastric Burkitt lymphoma: A case report and literature review

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Rationale:Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an endemic tumor in Africa but rare sporadic cases are diagnosed in Europe.Patient concerns:A 60-year-old woman was hospitalized with fulminant hematemesis and a history of recurring melena.Diagnoses:The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a tumor of the antrum.Interventions:Emergency gastrectomy was performed.Outcomes:Gross findings revealed an ulcerated tumor with elevated margins and several perigastric and extragastric lymph nodes. Histological examination showed proliferation of atypical lymphocytes with a Ki67 index of 100%; they were marked by CD20, CD79a, bcl-6, and CD10 and were negative for CD3, CD5, CD23, TdT, bcl-2, and Cyclin D1. The tumor cells crossed the serosa and presented invasion of the lymph nodes. The patient died 10 days after surgery due to bronchopneumonia and acute renal failure.Lessons:In our department, only one gastric BL was diagnosed in a 61 consecutive lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract (1.64%). Less than 200 reports about gastric-BL have been published to date. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosis of rare variants of aggressive gastric lymphomas in medium-income countries without screening programmes.

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