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Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD) is mainly caused by atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by plaque formation in arteries. Reactive oxygen species caused structural damage and dysfunction of arterial endothelial cells. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is the endogenous inhibitor and regulator of thioredoxin, a major cellular antioxidant and antiapoptotic system. In order to explore the role of TXNIP in the occurrence and development of CAD, we detected the TXNIP expression and discussed its molecular mechanisms in CAD.The mRNA levels of TXNIP gene in peripheral leucocytes were detected in CAD and healthy controls (CTR) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. And TXNIP proteins were detected by western blotting.TXNIP gene expression levels in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n = 96) were significantly increased compared with those of CTR (n = 192, P < .05). However, the situation is different in acute myocardial infarction (n = 96, P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that TXNIP levels were significantly positive correlated with UAP (OR = 1.728, P < .05).TXNIP gene expression in the peripheral leucocytes was increased in patients with UAP, indicating that TXNIP in circulating leucocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of UAP.