A rare case report of bilateral common and internal iliac arterial fibromuscular dysplasia: Coexisted dissection, aneurysm, and stenosis

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Abstract

Rationale:

Iliac arterial fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was rarely reported and its demographic, clinical, and imaging features have not been precisely described resulting in uncertain therapeutic methods.

Patient concerns:

A 31-year-old man was referred because of 3-month-ago onset hypertension, low serum potassium, and a small-sized right kidney with normal renal artery under ultrasound examination. This patient was suspected of primary aldosteronism, whereas spirolactone was poorly effective.

Diagnosis:

Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and three-dimensional reconstruction of the whole aorta discovered an aneurysm from the right common iliac artery (CIA) to the internal iliac artery, consistent with a left CIA dissection and a remarkable right renal artery aneurysm before a stenosis. Iliac and renal arteries FMD were then confirmed through digital subtraction angiography (DSA).

Intervention:

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of right renal artery was operated and a stent was deployed in left CIA.

Outcomes:

This patient was normotensive, asymptomatic, and free from recurrence without any antihypertensive agents at an 8-month follow-up.

Lessons:

To our knowledge, this is the first bilateral common and internal iliac arterial FMD case in China, with unique asymptomatic dissection, aneurysm, and renovascular hypertension. Screening for secondary hypertension in young population and for iliac or renal arterial FMD is therefore suggested with CTA and reconstruction from neck to pelvis and MRA in those with intracranial disorders. Among youth FMD, the potential of PTRA in renovascular hypertension out of antihypertensive drugs and stent in dissection is novelly indicated.

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