The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vitreomacular interface configuration on treatment outcomes after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify relevant prospective or retrospective studies that evaluate the influence of vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) or vitreomacular traction (VMT) on functional and anatomical outcomes in neovascular AMD patients treated with anti-VEGF agents. The outcome measures were the mean change in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline, the mean change in central macular thickness (CMT) from baseline, and the mean injection numbers of anti-VEGF treatment from baseline.
In total, 9 studies were selected for this meta-analysis, including 2156 eyes (404 eyes in the VMA/VMT group and 1752 eyes in the non-VMA/VMT group). In neovascular AMD patients treated with anti-VEGF agents, the VMA/VMT group was associated with poorer visual acuity gains and CMT reductions at 1 year (WMD [95% CI], −6.17 [−11.91, −0.43] early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letters, P = .04; WMD [95% CI], 22.19 [2.01, 42.38] μm, P = .03, respectively). There was no significant difference between 2 groups in the mean BCVA change and the CMT change over 2 years (WMD [95% CI], −5.59 [−21.19, 10.01] ETDRS letters, P = .48; WMD [95% CI], 6.56 [−24.78, 37.90] μm, P = .68, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean injection numbers between 2 groups at 1 year (WMD [95% CI], 0.36 [−0.19, 0.90], P = .21), whereas the VMA/VMT group had a significantly higher mean injection numbers over 2 years (WMD [95% CI], 1.14 [0.11, 2.16], P = .03).
The limited evidence suggests that vitreomacular interface configuration have a significant influence on the visual acuity gain and CMT reduction at 1 year, injection numbers at 2 years in neovascular AMD patients treated with anti-VEGF agents. However, the results of this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity among study designs. Eyes with VMA/VMT on optical coherence tomography at baseline may require more intensive treatment with decreased response to anti-VEGF agents.