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Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral disease with unknown etiology. The association between IL-6-174 G/C and IL10-1082 G/A polymorphisms and the risk of RAS remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to gain more evidence-based information.Four online databases, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were searched, and the relevant publications were collected. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the association of the IL-6-174 G/C and IL10-1082 G/A polymorphisms with RAS susceptibility.Nine published case–control studies with 779 patients and 1016 controls were collected. The overall analysis proved that the IL10-1082 G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of RAS in a dominant model (GG + AG vs AA: OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.10–2.01, P = .01). A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed significant associations in Asian populations in allelic, heterozygote, and dominant models (G vs A: OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04–2.31, P = .03; AG vs AA: OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.16–2.67, P = .01; GG + AG vs AA: OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.37–3.03, P = .00). The association in Caucasians and people of mixed ethnicity requires further study. No significant association was detected between the IL-6-174 G/C polymorphism and RAS in any of the genetic models. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed that the Caucasians were more likely to develop RAS in 4 genetic models (G vs C: OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.26–4.41, P = .01; GG vs CC: OR = 7.05, 95% CI = 3.50–14.18, P = .00; GG + CG vs CC: OR = 4.28, 95% CI = 2.17–8.45, P = .00; GG vs CG + CC: OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.05–6.41, P = .04). In addition, a significantly decreased risk of RAS susceptibility was found in Asians (CG vs CC: OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.07–0.99, P = .049; GG + CG vs CC: OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.07–0.98, P = .047).Our meta-analysis indicated that the IL10-1082 G/A polymorphism is associated with RAS susceptibility, especially in Asians. In contrast, the IL-6-174 G/C polymorphism does not have a statistically significant association with RAS susceptibility. However, it may play a different role during the development of RAS in different ethnicities.