Clinical application of MRI-respiratory gating technology in the evaluation of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-respiratory gating technology for assessing illness severity in children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).

MRI-respiratory gating technology was used to scan the nasopharyngeal cavities of 51 children diagnosed with OSAHS during 6 respiratory phases. Correlations between the ratio of the area of the adenoid to the area of the nasopalatine pharyngeal cavity (Sa/Snp), with the main indexes of polysomnography (PSG), were analyzed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and Kappa analysis were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Sa/Snp in pediatric OSAHS.

The Sa/Snp was positively correlated with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (P < .001) and negatively correlated with the lowest oxygen saturation of blood during sleep (LaSO2) (P < .001). ROC analysis in the 6 respiratory phases showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the Sa/Snp in the end-expiratory phase was the largest (0.992, P < .001), providing a threshold of 69.5% for the diagnosis of severe versus slight-moderate OSAHS in children. Consistency analysis with the AHI showed a diagnosis accordance rate of 96.0% in severe pediatric OSAHS and 96.2% in slight-moderate pediatric OSAHS (Kappa = 0.922, P < .001).

Stenosis of the nasopalatine pharyngeal cavity in children with adenoidal hypertrophy was greatest at the end-expiration phase during sleep. The end-expiratory Sa/Snp obtained by a combination of MRI and respiratory gating technology has potential as an important imaging index for diagnosing and evaluating severity in pediatric OSAHS.

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